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Since , the Ultra decrypts for the relevant period have been available in the UK National Archives. It said that transmission of a figure 9 would denote "KORN", and hindsight has recognised that to be the code name for Coventry. Indeed, the word KORN was used in two reports [28] from an aircraft taking part in a raid on Southampton on 30 November, two weeks after the Coventry Blitz.

Another decrypt on 11 November or early on 12 November [29] gave navigational beam settings for Wolverhampton , Birmingham , and Coventry but no dates. There was a hiatus in Ultra decrypts from Churchill could not have received new Ultra intelligence on the afternoon or evening of the attack because there was none to give him.


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Intelligence from captured airmen and documents did not offer an unambiguous picture either. The final air raid on Coventry came on 3 August , in the Stoke Heath district approximately one mile to the east of the city centre.

File:Nagelstudio Blitz Mannheim.jpg

Six people were killed. By the time of this air raid, some 1, people had been killed by air raids on Coventry; of these rest in the mass grave in London Road Cemetery. Immediate reconstruction was undertaken by a committee headed by motor-industry magnate William Rootes. In the aftermath of the war, Coventry city centre was extensively rebuilt according to the Gibson Plan compiled by the town planner Donald Gibson: Coventry Cathedral was left as a ruin, and is today still the principal reminder of the bombing. A new cathedral was constructed alongside the ruin in the s, designed by the architect Basil Spence.

Spence later knighted for this work insisted that instead of re-building the old cathedral it should be kept in ruins as a garden of remembrance and that the new cathedral should be built alongside, the two buildings together effectively forming one church. The foundation stone of the new cathedral was laid by the Queen on 23 March Spon Street was one of the few areas of the city centre to survive the blitz largely intact, and during the post-war redevelopment of Coventry, several surviving mediaeval buildings from across the city were relocated to Spon Street.

Mary's Guildhall in Bayley Lane opposite the ruined cathedral also survived and stands to this day. However, in addition to destroying many historic buildings, the bombing revealed a mediaeval stone building on Much Park Street, thought to date from the 13th or 14th century.


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The speakers included Mr E. Letts, Muriel Drewe, Miss G. Ellis and the Very Reverend R. These archive recordings feature on The Blitz , an audiobook CD issued in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Coventry bombed — torn apart by firestorm. Routledge, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: Anti-Aircraft Artillery —55 , London: The Defence of the United Kingdom , London: HM Stationery Office, , pp. The air raids of ". British history on line. Germans bomb Coventry to destruction".

File:Maimarkt Mannheim 2015 - Opel Blitz Malteser Hilfsdienst LU-MH 118.JPG

Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 25 September A Man Called Intrepid. British Scientific Intelligence — Retrieved 26 September Bombers were noisy, cold, and vibrated badly. Added to the tension of the mission which exhausted and drained crews, tiredness caught up with and killed many. He fell asleep at the controls of his Ju 88 and woke up to discover the entire crew asleep. He roused them, ensured they took oxygen and Dextro-Energen tablets, then completed the mission.

The Luftwaffe could still inflict much damage and after the German conquest of Western Europe, the air and submarine offensive against British sea communications became much more dangerous than the German offensive during the First World War. Liverpool and its port became an important destination for convoys heading through the Western Approaches from North America, bringing supplies and materials. The considerable rail network distributed to the rest of the country. Minister of Home Security Herbert Morrison was also worried morale was breaking, noting the defeatism expressed by civilians.

Roads and railways were blocked and ships could not leave harbour. Around 66, houses were destroyed and 77, people made homeless "bombed out" [] , with 1, people killed and 1, seriously hurt on one night. The populace of the port of Hull became 'trekkers', people who made a mass exodus from cities before, during and after attacks.

All but seven of its 12, houses were damaged. Many more ports were attacked. Plymouth was attacked five times before the end of the month while Belfast, Hull, and Cardiff were hit. Cardiff was bombed on three nights, Portsmouth centre was devastated by five raids. The rate of civilian housing lost was averaging 40, people per week dehoused in September In March , two raids on Plymouth and London dehoused , people.

Many houses and commercial centres were heavily damaged, the electrical supply was knocked out, and five oil tanks and two magazines exploded. Nine days later, two waves of and bombers dropped heavy bombs, including tons of high explosive and 32, incendiaries. Much of the city centre was destroyed. Damage was inflicted on the port installations, but many bombs fell on the city itself. On 17 April tons of explosives and 46, incendiaries were dropped from bombers led by KG The damage was considerable, and the Germans also used aerial mines. Over 2, AAA shells were fired, destroying two Ju 88s.

In the north, substantial efforts were made against Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sunderland , which were large ports on the English east coast.

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On 9 April Luftflotte 2 dropped tons of high explosives and 50, incendiaries from bombers in a five-hour attack. Sewer, rail, docklands, and electric installations were damaged. In Sunderland on 25 April, Luftflotte 2 sent 60 bombers which dropped 80 tons of high explosive and 9, incendiaries. Much damage was done. A further attack on the Clyde, this time at Greenock , took place on 6 and 7 May. However, as with the attacks in the south, the Germans failed to prevent maritime movements or cripple industry in the regions.

This caused more than 2, fires. One-third of London's streets were impassable. All but one railway station line was blocked for several weeks. German air supremacy at night was also now under threat. British night-fighter operations out over the Channel were proving successful.

Added to the fact an interception relied on visual sighting, a kill was most unlikely even in the conditions of a moonlit sky. Attacks from below offered a larger target, compared to attacking tail-on, as well as a better chance of not being seen by the crew so less chance of evasion , as well as greater likelihood of detonating its bomb load. In subsequent months a steady number of German bombers would fall to night fighters. Improved aircraft designs were in the offing with the Bristol Beaufighter, then under development. It would prove formidable but its development was slow.

In January , Fighter Command flew sorties against 1, made by the Germans. Night fighters could claim only four bombers for four losses. By April and May , the Luftwaffe was still getting through to their targets, taking no more than one- to two-percent losses per mission. In the following month, 22 German bombers were lost with 13 confirmed to have been shot down by night fighters.

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Between 20 June , when the first German air operations began over Britain, and 31 March , OKL recorded the loss of 2, aircraft over the British Isles, a quarter of them fighters and one third bombers. At least 3, Luftwaffe aircrew were killed, 2, missing and 2, wounded. A significant number of the aircraft not shot down after the resort to night bombing were wrecked during landings or crashed in bad weather.

The military effectiveness of bombing varied. Despite the bombing, British production rose steadily throughout this period, although there were significant falls during April , probably influenced by the departure of workers for Easter Holidays, according to the British official history. The official history volume British War Production Postan, noted that the greatest effect on output of warlike stores was on the supply of components and dispersal of production rather than complete equipments.

In aircraft production, the British were denied the opportunity to reach the planned target of 2, aircraft in a month, arguably the greatest achievement of the bombing, as it forced the dispersal of the industry, at first because of damage to aircraft factories and then by a policy of precautionary dispersal. The attacks against Birmingham took war industries some three months to recover fully.


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The exhausted population took three weeks to overcome the effects of an attack. The air offensive against the RAF and British industry failed to have the desired effect. More might have been achieved had OKL exploited the vulnerability of British sea communications. The Allies did so later when Bomber Command attacked rail communications and the United States Army Air Forces targeted oil, but that would have required an economic-industrial analysis of which the Luftwaffe was incapable.

They concluded bombers should strike a single target each night and use more incendiaries, because they had a greater impact on production than high explosives.

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They also noted regional production was severely disrupted when city centres were devastated through the loss of administrative offices, utilities and transport. They believed the Luftwaffe had failed in precision attack and concluded the German example of area attack using incendiaries was the way forward for operations over Germany. Some writers claim the Air Staff ignored a critical lesson, that British morale did not break and that attacking German morale was not sufficient to induce a collapse.

Aviation strategists dispute that morale was ever a major consideration for Bomber Command. Throughout —39 none of the 16 Western Air Plans drafted mentioned morale as a target. The first three directives in did not mention civilian populations or morale in any way. Morale was not mentioned until the ninth wartime directive on 21 September The AOC Bomber Command, Arthur Harris , who did see German morale as an objective, did not believe that the morale-collapse could occur without the destruction of the German economy.